Food insecurity resilience measurement in north and south regions of Senegal
Countries localized in the South of Sahara, such as Senegal, exhibit the highest severity of food insecurity. People living in these countries develop adaptation strategies to survive. This capacity to resist and to recovery from food insecurity called resilience depends on the household capacity and livelihoods. The objective of this study was to measure the resilience to food insecurity in two areas: ZME SN06 (livestock and pastoral areas) and ZME SN 11 (agroforestry-fishing-tourism regions). Based on data from the 2013 National Food and Nutrition Security Survey (ENSAN), the dimensions of resilience to food insecurity such as Adaptation Strategies, Productive Assets, Access to Food and Access to Basic Social Services were determined. Using a methodology developed by Alinovi et al. 2010 a Resilience Index (RI) was calculated for the departments and the ZME. The results showed that the Food Access index and Adaptation Strategies indicators are the most influential factors on resilience to food insecurity. Rural households’ capacity and livelihoods were infleuenced by the age and the sex of the head of the household. The ZME SN 06 (RI: 0.558) was found more resilient than the ZME SN 11 (RI: 0.459). According to the specificity of the ZME, initiatives to improve resilience to food insecurity should be taken. These programs must take into account the dimensions that impact mostly the resilience for the effectiveness of the interventions.
Keywords: Food Security, Resilience, Livelihoods, “Zone de Moyens d’Existence”