Despite research already conducted within the last 30 years, campylobacteriosis remains the most common bacterial foodborne infection in the world. Little is known about the characteristics of Campylobacter and the survival of this apparently fragile organism in the food chain. The present literature review aims at updating information on the genus Campylobacter, its characteristics, prevalence in food, and on human campylobacteriosis. It also presents an overview of the risk assessment of thermophilic Campylobacter.The risk assessment of Campylobacter, is of major importance in evaluating the impact in public health and in determining choices for control and management strategies in the food chain. 

Keywords: Campylobacter spp., Human campylobacteriosis, prevalence, food