Roles of minerals (Sodium, Potassium, Calcium and Magnesium) in the prevention and management of high blood pressure
High blood pressure is defined as a systolic blood pressure greater than or equal to 140 mm Hg and a diastolic pressure greater than or equal to 90 mm Hg in a subject with no particular complications. The involvement of sodium in the increase in blood pressure figures is detailed in many scientific publications, but what about other minerals. After the analyses carried out on various reviews, we were able to identify the effects of K, Ca and Mg on blood pressure. For potassium, several studies have shown that a lower potassium intake, i.e. less than 3500 mg/day, would increase the risk of an hypertension, while an intake between 3500 and 4700 mg per day would highlight the hypotensive effect of potassium, its effect is associated with the amount of sodium, the higher the sodium intake, the more potassium has an antihypertensive power. For calcium, its mechanism of action on blood pressure is still not so clear, but the scientists' hypotheses suggest that calcium has a vasodilatory action because a decrease in intracellular calcium concentration was able to reduce blood pressure. This hypothesis itself comes from the action of calcium inhibitors, which in their mechanism will reduce muscle tone by blocking calcium channels with a vasodilatory effect. For magnesium, studies have shown its vasodilatory effect. A decrease in magnesium concentration would cause vasoconstriction, and conversely an increase in its concentration would promote vasodilation. In addition, other studies have shown that the association between these different minerals is equally effective in significantly reducing blood pressure levels.
Keywords: hypertension, calcium, magnesium, potassium, sodium